Variant after Action Review Written Report

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Problems of Flint Water Contamination

Lack of professional ways of maintaining, controlling, and handling water systems has contributed to a health crisis. Our group conducted a study on water systems in Flint and Michigan. We discovered toxic components within conduit pipes. The analysis our report discovered that state official and politicians practiced irresponsible and callousness by distributing drinking water across country, cities, towns, and suburbs using poisonous leaded pipes. The various centers had no properly trained staff to manage and control drinking water. Highest officials in government responsible for making a major decision in water supply and distribution were appointed as interim with no knowledge about water science (Chris, 2016). Our study revealed that lead pipes contain contaminated water. A laboratory test revealed some toxic, poisonous compound of toxins which are dissolved in water. Poisonous compounds are transported in respective homes, institutions of learning, hospitals, and other public places for consumption.

Impact of Poisonous Water

As a result of domestic consumption of Flint water, the general public has been diagnosed with various types of diseases such as anemia. Health centers have encountered several cases of mental retardations as a result of brain damage from lead compounds. Children suffered from learning difficulties, and had lowered IQs (Joseph, & Robert, 2016). Industrial application water distributed from Flint water plant has led to corrosion of various industrial production processes. Various problems have been caused by high level of poverty among public individuals living within water systems. Financial constraints contributed to government officials switching water supply plant to obtain water from Flint River (Chris, 2016). It was one of the strategies applied as a measure towards saving finance. However, due to poor planning general public suffered from various diseases as well corrosion of industrial machines.

According to information gathered through the interview, quality assurance department failed to provide an anti-corrosive agent to leaded pipes. A demographic study conducted by various residents in different regions confirmed that about 88% of residents complained that water had turned into brown color due to increased iron (Joseph, & Robert, 2016).  A public health officer provided a detailed report of elevated lead levels among children. Collected samples of supplied water proved high concentration of dissolved lead compounds in the water supplying systems. The graph for effects of lead chemicals in children blood as shown in figure 1

Figure 1: Effects of lead concentration on children

Retrieved from


Response to Flint Water Contamination Problem

Through our analyzed reports, we took a step of taking public concerns and complaints to the state department of environment. Our report analyzed the major problems such foul tasting water, lead poison and discolored water. The rusty water samples were collected and taken by the group to responsible officials. City Civil and environmental engineers tested lead in Flint water plant. The result of testing resulted to flushing of water taps before implementing intended lead test. The results revealed a high concentration of lead compounds (Joseph, & Robert, 2016). The municipal water systems that supplied water to older cities indicated similar results of contamination.

Control measures implemented by municipal officials included the addition of compound referred t as orthophosphate responsible for controlling lead compound. It was applied in covering the inside of lead pipes with a layer of phosphate to prevent dissolving of lead metal in water. Professional and water engineers guaranteed that lead pipes maintained using orthophosphate compound are likely to last 100 years or more. Other chemicals applied to lower lead levels included anti-leaching agents. Such compounds were fast and cheap in acting. Anti-leaching agents prevented lead from entering water traveling along pipes. Soldering was another option applied that prevented entry of poisonous elements into water pipes (Rob, 2016). They were fixed at water source as well as water intake points.  However, treatment chemistry did not go well; Flint water was treated well following group clean water initiative project. The group conducted a series of testing on Flint water however it was still contaminated with tainted elements of the lead compound. The anti-corrosive agent did not work well as expected. Some of the lines were totally clogged by anti-corrosive agent rendering lead pipes ineffective. During a treatment session, the public was required to avoid consuming water until health confirmation that water was safe for drinking. However, the period was nonpredictable and could last for more than expected.

Effective and Efficient Solution

Mitigation strategy shall involve identifying where lead conduit pipes have been laid down. Mitigation operation has to take place from one house to another to enhance complete replacement of lead lines with secure lines. Entire replacement process shall require the mechanical involvement of both technical work and mechanical work. The high cost of the project may go up hundreds of millions. However, it shall be a worth effort that shall ensure security to children through the provision of clean, secure, and safe drinking water (Rob, 2016). Due to the impact of cost lead pipes shall be replaced with non-toxic materials such as PVC.


Government and municipal authorities need t ensure that encountered problems are not experienced in future. Water managers should be selected from well-educated elites who are competent in ensuring effective and efficient management of water infrastructure. Water supply and plant should regularly be audited to ensure public are provided with healthy water for drinking. The research study should be initiated in various learning institutions like universities to ensure that new techniques for facilitating safe water for drinking are implemented within society. New alternatives that should facilitate management of water points as well as invent new methods of reusing and manage water reservoirs should be studied and invented in universities. Water supply, as well as water infrastructure plan, should be established to enhance better and improved contingency planning, maintenance, and improvement of water systems.


Water is life and should be handled as a basic need among public members. The individuals responsible for controlling and managing water should play their role and responsibilities effectively and efficiently. Health should be the first issue of concern that should be considered. Water distribution and systems that provide effective usage of drinking water should be allocated better and effective methods of checking, analyzing, treating and checking the water. Repairing of water systems should be scheduled under a tight schedule to ensure clean, and non-contaminated water is distributed.  Lead pipes, as well as other risky and poisonous pipes such as copper and iron pipes, should be completely avoided in transporting water to different places within the country.


Chris S. (2016). Piping as poison: the Flint water crisis and America’s toxic infrastructure.

Joseph K. & Robert P. (2016). Flint’s water crisis highlights need for infrastructure investment and innovation.
Rob J. (2016). Q&A: Stanford water expert on lessons of Flint, Michigan, crisis.


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