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Adler et al., (2012) conducted a study to examine common systems and pharmacological treatment in bipolar.  Bipolar disorder is characterized by major manic and depressive episodes. The researchers also tested the possibility of self-rated indicators to predict hospital admissions within a period of one year. A quantitative study was conducted.  Semi-structured interviews were used to reassess data collected. Statistical analysis was done through standard deviation, mean, and frequency. A two-way analysis variance was used to test differences between groups included in categorized variables. Patients with bipolar disorder diagnosis above the age of 18 years were invited t participate in the study. The sample comprised of 231 outpatients with clinical bipolar I disorder. A total of 24 participants had either schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder type II. A self-rating scale AS-18 was used in the assessment of medication status. The results were then recorded, and participants were prospectively followed for a period of one year.  Any hospitalizations during the study period were recorded.

Treatment was provided to optimize the treatment effect for participants. Patients with depression or those high in mania showed a considerably high risk of hospitalization. Drug combination did not considerabley affect self-rated mania or depression. The study also found a significant relationship between treatment with antidepressant and suicidal ideation.   The researchers were able to predict hospital admissions. However, no significant effects related to the treatment were detected. Treatment with lithium did not cause any significant effect.  Findings show that 60% of participants were normothymic. A significant portion of the sample showed mixed affective symptoms while a small portion of the sample showed either manic or depressive symptoms. The average admission rate was 13% (Adler et al., 2012).


Adler, M., Backlund, L., Edman, G., & Ösby, U. (2012). Symptoms and treatment of bipolar patients in Sweden. International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice, 16(3), 170-177.

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