Entire nation depend on how to secure and resilient critical infrastructures like assets, systems, and networks. Nation Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) specify how government and private sectors participate as well as other participants work together to manage risks associated with management and controlling risks as well as ensuring proper mitigation of threats to critical infrastructure. The first strategy implemented by core stakeholders is ensuring various risks like the incorporation of preventive measures, protective activities, preparation, incidence response plan as well as recovery procedure are clearly stated and followed by CIKR collaborating teams (Baker & Weitz, 2015). The main objective of collaborating teams like Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to enforce and facilitate government, private sectors, owners. DHS ensure that state, tribal, and local risk mitigation plan are applied to guarantee benefits in restriction of risks, mitigation of risks, deterring risks and minimizing consequences associated with critical national resources (Baker & Weitz, 2015).
DHS has the responsibility for leading, integrating as well as coordinating nation efforts to ensure CIKR protection and security. The various efforts implemented by DHS is developing comprehensive risk management strategies and methodologies. It develops policies that define cross sector and cross jurisdiction protective guideline practices, as well as protocols, followed during risk management plan. Risk management, as well as performance criteria and metrics, applied across sectors include:-
DHS ensure it has identified, prioritized, and coordinated nation actions that ensure the protection of sensitive critical assets, systems, and public networks. It deals with a particular threat that would lead or be exploited to cause a catastrophic disaster on matter dealing with public interests like health. The plan also addresses issues that may be violated by individuals and affects human rights in a situation where mass casualties may be caused by scenarios like applied weapons in mass destruction of human, properties, and resources.
DHS must establish and maintain dynamic information sharing the network with security agencies, risk mitigating team, and threat-analyzing team. DHS provides actionable threat information, assessment, and warning to public and private sectors security. DHS facilitates protection of sensitive information that is vital in ensuring assets and commodities belonging to the public get proper security. It establishes mechanisms for analyzing risks and processes associated with the particular national asset.
DHS facilitates domestic incidence response management and implementation by clarifying protection priorities provided across different sectors and levels of jurisdiction. It ensures the protection of integrated CIKR programs using protective hazards. DHS provides warnings and signals to relevant authorities concerning a specific threat within all levels of Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS).
DHS facilitate conducting of modeling criteria and simulations that analyze different sectors dependencies and interdependencies to secure nations from cyber crimes. Research and networks analysis is conducted to facilitate identification of vulnerable sections as well as reacting and responding to any computer crime activity. System checks and analyzing of entire operations require high level analyzing of systems to facilitate proper security to entire operations within networks.
Through analyzed operations and threats, DHS collaborate Sector-Specific Agency (SSA) to ensure Emergency services sector are secured and protected during. Networks and systems that affect private assets get secured through public safety policies that ensure proper governance of national economy. DHS system that controls, monitors, accesses, and implements prevention, preparedness, response and recovery plans ensure that nation’s defense is given priority (Department of Homeland Security, 2008). Various strategies are laid down to ensure that risk and possible threats that may arise as a result of a terrorist attack have been clearly addressed through the provision of security agencies. Manmade as well as natural disasters get addressed through co-operating and state strategic plans. DHS ensure active and direct operations of contingency plans, allocations of funds as well as the implementation of various procedures that ensure secure procedure in facilitating protection against unidentified and known disasters.
The main strategies implemented by various emergency responses is the facilitation of measures and functions that help ESS to save human lives during a disaster, protect extreme destruction of properties as well as ensuring that the current threat, attack, or disaster does not go beyond estimated limits. The DHS work through ESS to facilitate proper and secure maintenance of the clean and safe environment. DHS facilitate management and maintenance of environment through the launching of programs that enhance maintenance of natural environments like water, forests, mountains, and wildlife (Baker & Weitz, 2015). ESS and DHS collaborate in assisting communities affected by natural disasters as well as manmade to recover from serious emergencies and losses that hinder them from progressing in most effective and fluent manner.
DHS sector has six special capabilities that are accomplished by ESS. The responsibilities are categorized into ESS disciplines and ESS special capabilities as shown below
ESS Incidence Response Disciplines
- Enforcing law and during implementation of response plans
- Provision of fire and emergency services at local, tribal, and territorial levels
- Facilitating emergency management within allocated period or in estimated time
- Provision of Emergency medical services at local, tribal, and territorial levels
- Facilitating allocation of various operations that implement and govern public work and involvement of secure parameters to public responsibilities
ESS Special Capabilities In Provision Of CIKR
- Provision of hazardous materials, tools and equipment such as emergency vehicles, protective clothing, weapons, and supply of facilities like clean water to attack victims through (HAZMAT) projects
- Coordinating process and activities involving searching of victims involved in a disaster through implementing rescue operations using trained, skilled, and experienced individuals through (SAR) (CIKR (2011).
- Ensuring society is safe and secure through disposing of dangerous explosives, grasses, as well as drugs. It implements that duty through providing a body called Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) (CIKR (2011)
- The entire ESS unit is liable implementing special ways in dealing with weapons such as explosives, bombs, missiles, and dangerous nuclear and atomic reactors. The body provides such provisions through Special Weapons and Tactics and Tactical Operations (SWAT)
- The organization has special unit responsible for facilitating air operations within short durations. The unit has a special air wing for facilitating fast response to rescue operations. ESS facilitates fast responses through the provision of Aviation units for training and educating pilots (Bennie, 2011).
- It also has a special location where victims associated with risks and dangerous disasters can secure places for vacation and living within the period of risk mitigation. The unit provides such, services through Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) (Bennie, 2011).
Baker M., & Weitz R. (2015). How to Fix Homeland Security Critical-Infrastructure Protection Plans:
Bennie G. (2011).United States Government Accountability Office:
CIKR (2011). Risk Analysis:
Department of Homeland Security (2008). Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Support Annex