# Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology

**Question #1: Explain the following key term –**

**a) Sampling (p. 202)**

Sampling is a technique of selecting units from a specific population of interest for purposes of study so that the outcomes becomes fairly generalized to the entire population they got picked.

**b) Probability sampling (p. 203)**

It is a technique of sampling which utilizes some random selection with procedures that allow different units of the population to have equal possibilities of being selected.

(**c) Equal probability of selection method [EPSEM] (p. 205)**

It is where a sampling method ensures that members of the population have equal chances of being selected in a group or a population to represent it in the study.

**(d) Sample element (p. 205)**

In research, a sample element is any unit of analysis to be measured.

**(e) Sample statistic (p.206) **

In research, sample statistic is any function of observed data, specifically the one used to approximate correspondence in measures in of particular underlying distribution such as the sample mean as well as variance.

**(f) Sampling distribution (p. 206)**

It is the spread of statistic which is viewed as a random variable, after being derived from a random sample of size (n). It can also be termed as the distribution of the statistic for entire possible samples from a particular population of a specific size.

** **

** ****(g) Population (p. 206)**

** **In research, a population is a whole collection of individuals or objects which act as the major scientific study query focus.

**(h) Population parameter (p. 206)**

In research, population parameter means the quantity or statistical measure that, for a specific population, is static and is applied as a value of a variable in entire distribution or frequency function as a way of making it descriptive of the whole population: The mean and variance of a population are the two population parameters.

**I) sampling frame (p. 208)**

In research, sampling frame means the source material where a sample is drawn. It also refers to a list of individuals in a population who can sample.

**(j) Simple random sampling (p. 215)**

Simple random sampling is a sampling technique where the researcher picks subjects for the study from the population while ensuring each can be picked entirely by chance and each member has an equal opportunity to be included in the research sample.

**(k) Stratification (p. 215)**

Stratification means a process whereby a population is structured to form layers, classes, or categories with common traits.

**(l) Systematic sampling (p. 215)**

Systematic sampling means a probability sampling whereby sample members from the whole population are selected random ground starting point and a fixed, periodic interval.

**(m)Disproportionate stratified sampling (p. 216)**

** **Disproportionate stratified sampling is a type of stratified sampling whereby a sample size of each stratum is not proportionate to the size of population size in the stratum. Two or more strata can have different sample fractions.

**(n) Cluster sampling (p. 217)**

** **Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used in natural but somehow heterogeneous categories are evident in the population where the whole population gets divided into clusters then a simple random sample in the groups get selected.

(**o) Non-probability sampling (p. 222)**

Non-probability sampling is a technique where samples are gathered using a process that does not give population members an equal chance to be selected.

**(p) Purposive sample (p. 222)**

Purposive sampling or also called judgmental or selective or subjective sampling is one of the non-probability sampling techniques whereby units for study are chosen based on researcher’s judgment.

**(q) Quota sampling (p. 225)**

Quota sampling is a non-probability technique of sampling where the assembled sample has same subject proportions of as the entire population concentration to known and specific focused trait.

**(r) Snowball sampling (p. 225)**

Snowball sampling is also a non-probability sampling technique which uses the existing study subjects as recruiters of future participants from their acquaintances.

** ****(s) Survey (p. 234)**

In research, the survey is one of the fields of applied statistics of human research meaning a methodology which studies the sampling of units from a population using data collection technique such as questionnaire construction and methods to enhance the number and the response accuracy.

**(t) Interview (p. 235)**

From a research point of view, an interview is any conversation where questions are asked and answers given and in most cases, it is a one-on-one conversation with the researcher and the respondents.

**(u) Open-ended questions (p. 237)**

They are an unstructured question that has no multiple choices, and likely answers remain un-suggested. The respondent ends up providing answers in his words. The questions always start with how, what, when, where, and why. They develop qualitative information, and they are best in exploratory research where statistical validity is not a key focus.

**(v) Close-ended questions (p. 237)**

A closed-ended question is research questions that are answered with simple “yes” or “no”, or without any piece of information. It dictates the scope of the questions to appropriateness to the information needed.

**(w) Questionnaire (p. 237)**

In research, the word questionnaire means any research instrument with a series of questions and other prompts for purposes of gathering information from study participants.

**(x) Computer-assisted interviewing [CAI] (p. 241)**

Computer-assisted interviewing in research means an interviewing technique whereby respondents or the interviewer makes use of a computer to provide feedback to questions. It is same to computer-assisted telephone interviewing, but the whole interview takes place in person.

**(y) Response rate (p. 246)**

In the realm of research, the response rate is the participants’ number who completes the survey divided by the size of the sample.

**(z) Interview survey (p. 249)**

In research, interview survey is also called face-to-face survey. It is a method of a survey that is used when a specific target population is used. It explores the responses of the subjects to gather more and inner information.

**Question #2: Review Chapter 10 then answer the following question**

**Research Topic**

**Perception of Drug Abuse on Crime Rates**

**Semi-structured Questions with Probes **

- Explain how drug abuse has increased crime rate in your locality. [PROBES: How influential is drug abuse to crime rates, do abusing drugs increases crime? What are some common crimes do you see caused by drug abuse? How has drug abuse affected you as a persona and the society? Is there anything that bothers you on drug abuse in the society?
- Think of some ways you have seen community drug abuse leading to crimes. [PROBES: How do you see them affecting the society? What best control do you suggest? Can you give me any examples of when you’ve heard drug abuse leading to crime? What kind of drugs have you heard as most causes of crime in the community? How do they get availed in the society? What other factors lead to the availability of these drugs in your community?

**References**

Maxfield, Michael G, and Earl R. Babbie: Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. , 2015. Print.