Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology

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DAWN) program gathers data on substance abuse using made to emergency medical departments.  The hospitals include nonfederal, short-stay, general hospitals that operate on round day basis.  DAWN uses a sample of 21 hospitals in key metropolitan as a way of promoting a rich sample.  It collects information on deaths caused by drugs through nonrandom samples, particularly through medical reports.

DAWN publishes what it calls DAWN Medical Examiner Data yearly. One of the limits of their sampling is that it only documents drug-related data on people who enter specific emergency rooms.  This sampling end up limited regarding generalizing to the United States it’s sampling also collects information on the adverse drug, and special room reported the case.   Serious as well as minor drug cases that do not reach the specific facilities end up left out of the sample. DAWN records overdose, detoxification and chronic drug effects in the emergency rooms with the limited necessity for emergency care.  Hence, cases reflect other aspects rather than medical reports. Data collection in DAWN program is done by reporters who are staffs.  The fact that DAWN program picks vital participants characterized with pertinent information is a plus from the fact that there is high validity in their data.   Strategic placement of data collection points saves time.  It does reduce not only the cost but also the efforts to move. Large demographic sampling is also strength since it profoundly represents a large population.  DAWN sampling also has some weaknesses including a focus on a few selected hospitals. Many cases end up unincorporated when they could be of a great significant on the results.  Enlarging the sampling base on drug issues can promote validity and reliability of DAWN.

 Question #2:  (Review Chapter 9)

Let take an example of this online questionnaire questions: what are the common crimes in your locality? What are the likely causes of this crime in your locality?  What do you think are the effect of such crimes in your society? Do you think the community policing is not working in your locality to control such crimes? From the critical view, these questions can give a lot of information on crime in different locations. On the contrary, the first three questions are biased because they trigger respondents to give to the last question.

From the critical view, surveys designs have strengths and weaknesses.  One of its strength is that it provides high general capability level in representing huge study populations.  Huge participants who answer the survey give data which have a deeper description of relative traits of the entire population in the study.  When compared to other designs, surveys are efficient in extracting data which can be near to perfect attributes of a population.

Survey designs are also cost-friendly as one only needs to pay for survey questionnaires

Data Gathering is also convenient in survey designs from the fact that surveys can be administered through many ways.  Questionnaires can be sent through e-mail, fax, or through The Internet. Surveys have good statistical significance from the fact that it has high representativeness. Different variables can be effectively analyzed when surveys are used. Similarly, surveys have limited observer subjectivity from the fact that they give all participants a standardized stimulus.  This makes them have high reliability since biases are controlled. On the other hand, surveys have their disadvantages.  This design is inflexible in nature from the fact that it cannot be changed in data gathering. It is also not good for controversial topics from the fact that the reality behind the controversies cannot be revealed. Using survey design has a great possibility of question inappropriateness. This situation emerges because questions always go through prior standardization administration to the subjects.

Question #3:  (Review Chapter 11)

One of the strengths of field research is that it happens in real world situation under real demands. As a result, it results in different interactions as well as system responses than laboratory as well as predictive designs.  Therefore, a better know-how on the way systems fit into the general flow emerges, together with other related usability concerns. Field research gives first-hand interactions and allows observation of relationships or subjects without disrupting their routines. In sum, it yields detailed data, emphasizes the role as well as the relevance of social context and uncovers social facts that cannot be immediately obvious or those that participants can be unaware. The weakness of field research is that in many cases, researchers do not manage to collect data from the many individuals as issues reached.  Most of them substitute breadth with depth. Related to this point is the fact that field research is extremely time intensive. Field research design is also emotionally taxing. The reason is that it demands some extent and relationship between a researcher and participants. When field research design is used on subjects such as such as shoplifting, seat belts wearing as well as bars and violence, serious ethical issues arise.  It means that the researchers have to be in the middle of the crimes and even participate.  This cannot only make the researcher a victim of circumstance but also lead to the prosecution of the researcher.

Question #4:  (Review Chapter 12)

            Graffiti or the unauthorized writing or drawing on surfaces has become problematic in public places. Carrying out content analysis of such crime can apply important steps in the content analysis. The first step in the process of carrying out content analysis for graffiti is selecting the content on which the analysis will be exercised on. Just like in audience research, coming up with the sample to analyze graffiti will be the critical primary step.  Since I will be sampling content and not people the information body, I will be drawing my sample will me a corpus. The second step in the plan will become up with graffiti’s content units.  Since I will want to count the content, my corpus will be divided into a particular number of units that will have a common size. The third step in my plan will be preparing the content for coding purposes.  The reason to do this is that prior content analysis, preserving content in analyzable form is vital. For my plan, I will prefer transcription regarding content interviewing. The fourth step in my plan will be content coding. This will involve sorting graffiti concepts into groups to make concepts in each group similar to each other and as unique as possible from concepts in all other groups. My second last step will be counting and weighing of graffiti content using as software for content analysis. This will involve entering data into the

Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology

DAWN) program gathers data on substance abuse using made to emergency medical departments.  The hospitals include nonfederal, short-stay, general hospitals that operate on round day basis.  DAWN uses a sample of 21 hospitals in key metropolitan as a way of promoting a rich sample.  It collects information on deaths caused by drugs through nonrandom samples, particularly through medical reports.

DAWN publishes what it calls DAWN Medical Examiner Data yearly. One of the limits of their sampling is that it only documents drug-related data on people who enter specific emergency rooms.  This sampling end up limited regarding generalizing to the United States it’s sampling also collects information on the adverse drug, and special room reported the case.   Serious as well as minor drug cases that do not reach the specific facilities end up left out of the sample. DAWN records overdose, detoxification and chronic drug effects in the emergency rooms with the limited necessity for emergency care.  Hence, cases reflect other aspects rather than medical reports. Data collection in DAWN program is done by reporters who are staffs.  The fact that DAWN program picks vital participants characterized with pertinent information is a plus from the fact that there is high validity in their data.   Strategic placement of data collection points saves time.  It does reduce not only the cost but also the efforts to move. Large demographic sampling is also strength since it profoundly represents a large population.  DAWN sampling also has some weaknesses including a focus on a few selected hospitals. Many cases end up unincorporated when they could be of a great significant on the results.  Enlarging the sampling base on drug issues can promote validity and reliability of DAWN.

 Question #2:  (Review Chapter 9)

Let take an example of this online questionnaire questions: what are the common crimes in your locality? What are the likely causes of this crime in your locality?  What do you think are the effect of such crimes in your society? Do you think the community policing is not working in your locality to control such crimes? From the critical view, these questions can give a lot of information on crime in different locations. On the contrary, the first three questions are biased because they trigger respondents to give to the last question.

From the critical view, surveys designs have strengths and weaknesses.  One of its strength is that it provides high general capability level in representing huge study populations.  Huge participants who answer the survey give data which have a deeper description of relative traits of the entire population in the study.  When compared to other designs, surveys are efficient in extracting data which can be near to perfect attributes of a population.

Survey designs are also cost-friendly as one only needs to pay for survey questionnaires

Data Gathering is also convenient in survey designs from the fact that surveys can be administered through many ways.  Questionnaires can be sent through e-mail, fax, or through The Internet. Surveys have good statistical significance from the fact that it has high representativeness. Different variables can be effectively analyzed when surveys are used. Similarly, surveys have limited observer subjectivity from the fact that they give all participants a standardized stimulus.  This makes them have high reliability since biases are controlled. On the other hand, surveys have their disadvantages.  This design is inflexible in nature from the fact that it cannot be changed in data gathering. It is also not good for controversial topics from the fact that the reality behind the controversies cannot be revealed. Using survey design has a great possibility of question inappropriateness. This situation emerges because questions always go through prior standardization administration to the subjects.

Question #3:  (Review Chapter 11)

One of the strengths of field research is that it happens in real world situation under real demands. As a result, it results in different interactions as well as system responses than laboratory as well as predictive designs.  Therefore, a better know-how on the way systems fit into the general flow emerges, together with other related usability concerns. Field research gives first-hand interactions and allows observation of relationships or subjects without disrupting their routines. In sum, it yields detailed data, emphasizes the role as well as the relevance of social context and uncovers social facts that cannot be immediately obvious or those that participants can be unaware. The weakness of field research is that in many cases, researchers do not manage to collect data from the many individuals as issues reached.  Most of them substitute breadth with depth. Related to this point is the fact that field research is extremely time intensive. Field research design is also emotionally taxing. The reason is that it demands some extent and relationship between a researcher and participants. When field research design is used on subjects such as such as shoplifting, seat belts wearing as well as bars and violence, serious ethical issues arise.  It means that the researchers have to be in the middle of the crimes and even participate.  This cannot only make the researcher a victim of circumstance but also lead to the prosecution of the researcher.

Question #4:  (Review Chapter 12)

            Graffiti or the unauthorized writing or drawing on surfaces has become problematic in public places. Carrying out content analysis of such crime can apply important steps in the content analysis. The first step in the process of carrying out content analysis for graffiti is selecting the content on which the analysis will be exercised on. Just like in audience research, coming up with the sample to analyze graffiti will be the critical primary step.  Since I will be sampling content and not people the information body, I will be drawing my sample will me a corpus. The second step in the plan will become up with graffiti’s content units.  Since I will want to count the content, my corpus will be divided into a particular number of units that will have a common size. The third step in my plan will be preparing the content for coding purposes.  The reason to do this is that prior content analysis, preserving content in analyzable form is vital. For my plan, I will prefer transcription regarding content interviewing. The fourth step in my plan will be content coding. This will involve sorting graffiti concepts into groups to make concepts in each group similar to each other and as unique as possible from concepts in all other groups. My second last step will be counting and weighing of graffiti content using as software for content analysis. This will involve entering data into the computer file, and using Atlas TI software for counting. This will help me come up with information on graffiti which will help in coming up with a conclusion and reporting the findings.

Question #5:  (Review Chapter 13)

One of the main advantages of randomized designs is its ability to allow some flexibility. This is to say that any number of replicates and treatments can comfortably get used. The other advantage is that they are relatively easy in the statistical analysis. Hence, they can be perfectly suited where variable experimental errors and variable replicates for diverse treatments are present. These designs make analysis attainable when some data misses. These designs also provide for the highest number freedom level for error for a specific number of experimental units as well as treatments. From the disadvantage side, randomized designs present relatively poor accuracy since they lack limitations that enhance environmental alterations to permeate an experimental error.

Randomized designs are also disadvantageous from the fact that they do not work with large amounts of treatments since large experimental material volume remains an obligation, hence variation widening. In the case of similarity in the experimental material, like in the case of growth chamber experiments, the randomized design remains the best designs. Similarly, the possibility of experimental unit’s fraction being vulnerable to destruction or failure in response rate or minor experiments with limited freedom makes randomized designs more suiting.

 

REFERENCES

Maxfield, Michael G, and Earl R. Babbie: Research Methods for Criminal Justice and       Criminology, 2015. Print.



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