Overpopulation is a condition where the existing number human population goes beyond the carrying capacity of a geographic location. It is caused by different factors. Low mortality rate, enhanced medical facilities and precious resources depletion are some of the causes that lead to overpopulation. It remains likely a sparsely populated area to become densely populated if it is not able to sustain life. Growing technology advances every coming year continue to affect humanity in several ways. Among them is the ability to save lives and create a better medical treatment for people. An outcome of this has been high lifespan as well as population growth (Einspruch, 2013). In the past half a decade, the population has boomed and led to overpopulation. In our species account, the birth, as well as death rate, has always managed to balance and keep a population growth rate in a sustainable way.
Since the advent of Bubonic Plague in the 15th century, the population growth of has remained on a constant increase. Between that period and the current time, there have been thousands of wars, calamities as well as artificial hazards. Unfortunately, none made a dent in the population. Developing countries do face overpopulation problems as compared to developed countries, though it affects all countries on at least a certain extent.
Causes of Overpopulation
Death Rate Decline: the main cause of overpopulation is the difference that exists between entire birth rate and death rate among people. If children born each year become to the number of those die, then the human population can stabilize. Despite the fact that there are diverse factors that lead to increased death rate for a short time, those that increase human birth rate work over a long time (Shah, 1998). The agricultural discoveries became one factor that gave people the ability to sustain nutrition. This led to the imbalance between the rates.
Advanced Medical Facilities: the industrial revolution and technological advancement stand as the biggest explanation for the population overgrow. Science has managed to give advanced means of food production, which has enabled families to feed many people (Stuart, 1958). Medical discipline has come up with many discoveries that have managed to defeat population consuming diseases. Diseases reduced could claim lives are now cured and prevented by vaccines. Combining food supply increase with fewer mortality means have tipped the balance and turned like a key cause of overpopulation.
More efforts to fight Poverty: overpopulation like most of the human phenomena has a psychological component. For many years, few people population had enough resources to stay comfortably. The majority has always been facing poverty and giving birth to huge families to make up for the mortality rate. Families who have been in poverty, disasters or the need of extra hands to work remain major factor leading to overpopulation. When compared to initial times, many of extra children survived and consumed resources that remain scarce in nature.
Technological Discoveries in Treating Fertility: With the current technological advancement as well as discoveries in the medical discipline, it continues to remain possible for people who are unable to sire to get fertility treatment and have babies. Currently, the world has more effective medicines that increase conception chances which lead to the rise in birth rate. Additionally, because of modern techniques, pregnancies continue to remain safer.
Immigration: in the contemporary times, many persons continue to prefer moving to developed countries such as US, Australia, UK, and Canada where there are good facilities in terms of education, security, employment and medical. This ends up making the immigrants settle over in such countries and make them overcrowded (Stuart, 1958). The difference in the number of persons who leave the country and those who enter continue to narrows down. As a result, more food demand, clothes, energy as well as homes starts to surface leading to resource shortage. Despite the fact that the general population remains the same, it affects the population density making such places to be overcrowded.
Poor family Planning: Many developing countries have huge populations that are illiterate, living below the poverty line with little or no family planning knowledge. Getting their children to get married at early ages increase chances of more kids. People who do not understand the disadvantages of overpopulation prompt them to overlook family planning initiatives.
Effects of overpopulation
Wars and conflicts: Population density in many developing nations exerts major strain resources they should be utilizing for development purposes. Water-related conflicts continue to be a tension cause between many countries and lead to wars. It also causes many diseases to spread and makes it harder to put them under control. Starvation becomes a great issue that faces the world making the mortality rate among children to be fuelled by it (Stefoff, 1993). Poverty remains as the greatest hallmark that people see while emphasizing on overpopulation. All of this can only become worse if initiatives are not devised for the issues that affect the population. Therefore, when wars and conflicts erupt, people move to places where they can enjoy solace. As a result, the place becomes overcrowded and overpopulated.
Unemployment increase: When a nation becomes overpopulated, it leads to unemployment from the fact that there will be fewer jobs to serve the large number population. Unemployment increase increases crimes since people will steal to feed their family as well as provide basic amenities in life.
Increase in cost of Living: since the difference between demand and supply continue to grow big because of overpopulation, it increases the prices of commodities such as food, shelter as well as healthcare. It, therefore, means that individuals will have to pay more to survive as well as meet the needs of families.
Initiatives to deal with Overpopulation
Advanced Education: education is among the measures in implementing policies that can reflect social change. Educating people helps they know the need to have a sustainable number of children at most. For instance, Families that is faced with life strain and decides to have many children need to be prevented. Family planning, as well as efficient birth control, can also assist women to make individual reproductive decisions (Stuart, 1958). Open dialogue on abortion, as well as voluntary sterilization, need to be put in focus as a way of dealing with overpopulation.
Family Planning Awareness: As the population continues to grow rapidly, raising people’s awareness about family planning as well as letting them understand serious after overpopulation effects can help in dealing with overpopulation. Among the best way is to let people know about safe sex as well as contraceptives approach available to avert unwanted pregnancies.
Einspruch, A. (2013). Overpopulation. New York: PowerKids Press.
Shah, A. (1998). Ecology and the crisis of overpopulation: Prospects for global sustainability. Cheltenham [u.a.: Elgar.
Stefoff, R. (1993). Overpopulation. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.
Stuart, A. J. (1958). Overpopulation: twentieth-century nemesis: A condensed, objective study of procreation, from the Amoeba to modern man. New York: Exposition Press.