IOT and impact on automotive industry

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The internet of things has been the desire of the researchers and the technology developers such that every object can have the connection to the global network for sending and receiving the data. This has allowed the embedding of the physical objects talk of the computing and communication devices as the priority, the vehicles, and buildings which are integrated with the software, network connectivity, and sensors. Businesses, individuals, companies have leveraged on the benefits that are associated with the internet of things. Despite the growth in the networking field, the principles are highly growing by the fact of the underlying pushing forces. In this paper there is the discussion of the underlying befits of the internet of things, the forces that are increasing the demand for the operational of the principles and the specification of discussing the Wireless sensor network energy utilization.

Internet of things is defined with some identical benefits that are getting companies or rather the world to go by having the connection to the internet to as many objects as the human effort could get. Primarily we have the benefit of advanced situational awareness such that business and persons will stand the high chances of easily getting to know and understand the different happening within the global and the status of the different systems being used in companies for production or for enhancing the human life. There is a boost in the decision making with the import of the sensor is drove decision analytics whereby sound and correct decision are made without the influence of the human but rather the control of networked parts. Subsequently, we have the process optimization whereby the required steps are easily got up to without the struggle as the system processes are easily controlled. The businesses take the advantage of the tracking behavior of the real-time marketing that provides a good understanding of what is happening upon the initiation of a certain process or decision within the businesses as far as the marketing of the company is well concerned. Distribution of things rather resources facilitates the usage, and this is achieved by making sure that the objects that require the resources are well connected to the global network for the easy access and thus sharing of the resources. This brings about the benefit of optimizing resource consumption that is brought about by the internet of things (Borne, 2014).

Appreciatively, we have to take the understanding of the associates to the benefits that are increasing the move towards the internet of things development and deployment in the global. There are several forces that are supposed to get mentioned. They include the existence of the ubiquitous network that describes the current existence of the personal Wi-Fi on our mobile phones and other communication and computing devices. In this case, the persons will wish to get the other devices used such as the fridges, controlling machines in the house such the laundry get connected to their wife. There is the power of the connected computing whereby every person would wish to have their devices get connected to the internet for the easy tracking of their operations to have the knowledge of who is using the devices, what is being used for what duration and other reasons. Selectively, we have the ubiquitous sensors that are integrated into most of the devices, and this provides a way of getting the revolution for the Internet of things and wearable. We can talk about the intelligence that is being observed at the peripheral of the network such that smart sensors are being used as mini databases by the fact of the machine learning algorithm. Indeed, the intelligence is greatly moving the peripheral of the networks. Other mentionable forces include the analytics-as-a-service, the supply chain analytics, marketing automation and the agile world of computation workforce (Borne, 2014).

Energy utilization in wireless sensor networks

The internet of things is being revealed with its great growth and evolution. In the wireless networks, the energy utilization has been an area of concern as far as the evolution of the worldly concept of object connection to the global network increases to take place. Different ways have been adapted to have the utilization of the energy on the wireless networks. The study takes the cut cross because of the point that everybody, business, companies, organizations, and firms are going towards the wireless network because of the benefits that the networks provides or rather gets associated. Sensors are described as wireless electronic elements and functions appropriate for the sensing interactions. They are situated in environments for the purpose of data collection from the monitored area. The wireless devices have been cheap, smaller and more powerful in the recent times. Therefore, the wireless sensor networks contain the sensor nodes that were designed for special purposes and applications

Efficient Energy Utilization Path Algorithm (EEUPA)

The technique of minimum energy utilization path algorithm is way adopted in utilizing the energy of the sensed data collection in a network environment which takes place in the form of using the minimum node energy drain rate and the minimized message overhead (Heinzelman, Chandrakasan &  Balakrishnan, 2002).

Routing techniques

The designing of the wireless sensor network is influential in determining the consumption of energy. Energy utilization is a concern as different routing protocols have been defined by the fact that energy is highly required during the transmission of the packets within the network. The sensors within the networks have to communicate amongst them and directly to the external base station. In the process, the sensor node has the power of collecting and routing data to other sensors nodes or to the external base station which requires a great consumption of energy. Energy consumption with the sensor nodes without losing the accuracy is a designing issue. The design requires the adoption of the table driven routing protocols rather than the use of the reactive protocols because a significant amount of energy is required in the route of transmission discovery and setting up of the reactive protocols in the reactive protocols. Subsequently, we can have the use of the cooperative routing protocol whereby nodes send data to the central node from which data is aggregated to have the further processing. As a result, reducing the route cost in the terms of the energy use/ consumptions. Flat routing defines the sensor protocols for information via Negotiation (SPIN) which is designed by getting the sensor nodes operating more efficiently and conserving energy by sending data which specifically defines the sensor data rather than sending the all of the data. Flooding is addressed with the SPIN family protocol which is associated with the extra sending of the unnecessary copies by sensors; flooding is associated with implosion that cases duplication of messages that get sent to the same sensor node.

Minimum cost forwarding algorithm (MCFA)

The wireless sensor networks operate by sensor nodes. The MCFA algorithm operates with the assumption that the direction of routing for the packets within the network is well known with the knowledge of the fixed external base station. The sensor node requires no unique ID. Instead, every sensor nodes maintain the least cost estimate from itself to the known external base station. Then it is followed with the message being forwarded by the sensor node gets duplicated to the neighbor/ next sensor node. The sensor node upon receiving the message it checks for the least cost path between the message source sensor node and the external base station and rebroadcast the message to the adjacent/ neighbor sensor node. The message is rebroadcasted with repeating the procedure until the message is delivered to the external base station (Ye, Chen, Liu & Zhang, 2001).

Energy aware routing

The routing technique aims at increasing the network lifetime. The protocol works by maintaining a set of the path rather than enforcing a single path at higher rates. The different paths are maintained and chosen by the means of a defined probability whereby the probability value is defined with minimum energy consumption that each path can achieve. The technique allows the accomplishment of the longer network lifetime as the energy gets dissipated equally amongst the nodes (Shah & Rabaey, 2002).

Such ways provide a clear way of improving the survivability of the wireless sensor networks which are the boosting ways of improving connectivity of physical objects to the global network for better functionalities. Different ways have been developed and are still evolving, and they result in the forces that are pushing the way to the internet of things globally.


Borne, K. (2014). 14 Benefits and Forces That Are Driving The Internet of Things. 

Heinzelman, W. B., Chandrakasan, A. P. &  Balakrishnan, H. (2002). An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 660–670.

Shah, R. C. & Rabaey, J. (2002). Energy Aware Routing for Low Energy Ad Hoc Sensor Networks, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC),  Orlando, FL.

Ye, F., Chen, A., Liu, S. &  Zhang, L. (2001). A scalable solution to minimum cost forwarding in large sensor networks, Proceedings of the tenth International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), pp. 304-309.

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