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  1. Factors that influence our nation’s focus on natural or man-made disasters

Man-made and natural disasters do pose a danger to human wellbeing and safety. Human security is, therefore, one of the most influential factors in enabling this nation to focus on such disasters. The first appearance of the human security concept was when it appeared on the Human Development Report from the 1994 report. The concept has since them appeared in various international politics. It is a different concept from our traditional understanding of security that placed emphasis on military defense among the state interests. Human security is a more human-centered and alternative perspective that focuses on protecting and securing individuals through giving them freedom from fear and want. The concept, therefore, provides a broader understanding of the term ‘security’ since it incorporates the concerns of human rights and development among other traditional issues. Thus applying human security as an aspect of preparedness from manmade and natural disasters it means that we need to establish the right strategies for risk reductions as we see in recent catastrophes of earthquakes in Japan and Haiti that contributed to the death, displacement and disease epidemics that affect many people ( Lee, 2015 ). Thus, the human security approach is an influential aspect that will enable this nation to focus on the best way of responding to natural disasters.

The recent terrorist attacks are other influencing factors that have resulted in the need to combat trauma care including various spectrums of injuries. These injuries happen within an austere environment, cause treatment delays and having to deal with mass causalities among the civilian community. By looking at the historical perspective, the manmade disasters provide valuable lessons to Responses in the future (Cox, 2008).

Protection of property and ensuring the continuity of business is another essential aspect of the need to focus on man-made and natural disasters. The business management team has to give support and show efforts on aspects that enhance their ability to recover from a disaster. Disaster recovery and business continuity planning should and can have integration as part of the daily operations of the business. DR planning unlike in the past has become easier and affordable with the technologies advancement. Such efforts are essential for ensuring that business, individuals and all members of the society being able to protect their property and ensure the continuity of their business after a disaster.

  1. Mitigation and Preparedness

Mitigation means reducing the seriousness or severity of something unexpected that has negative outcomes. It is an effort of working towards reducing the loss of property and life through lessening the disaster impact. For any mitigation efforts to be effective, it is crucial for one to take the right action now with no procrastination because a next disaster can take place anytime. Mitigation efforts are meant to reduce the financial and human consequences that will come later. Such efforts of mitigation include taking insurance against a risk, reducing risk, and analyzing risk. It is also crucial to keep in mind that disasters can take place at any place or anytime and when we are not prepared to handle them, there can be fatal results. Effective mitigation requires that we have a good understanding of all the local risks, deal with hard choices and ensure the well-being of the community in a long-term. The lack of these mitigation efforts means that we are jeopardizing our financial security, our safety as well as our self-reliance (Alexander, 2012).

Preparedness is a term that defines that state of being read. An organization should have in place all the preventive measures for any forecasted disastrous event. This state of readiness is crucial in enabling the organizations to minimize the damages to property, injury and loss of life. Preparedness efforts help the organizations know early in advance how to undertake relief, provide rescue, and rehabilitation among other services that happen in a disaster’s aftermath (Bankoff, Frerks, and Hilhorst  2003). Preparedness also means having resources and capability of ensuring the sustainability of the essential functions of the organization and not being overwhelmed by the demand for these resources. The immediate and first responses are always the emergency preparedness. Efforts of disaster preparedness trace back to the 1950’s fall-out shelters as well as air raid wardens. These are clear cut cases on the efforts by the government in promoting preparedness with the knowledge of the Soviet Union’s potential nuclear attack. In the past few years, there has been a significant advancement on such preparedness efforts. The Department of Homeland Security is striving in enabling all American families to put to attention the aspects of preparedness as part of its emergency management building block (Alexander, 2012).


Cox, C (2008) “Manmade Disasters: A Historical Review of Terrorism and Implications for the Future” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 13 No. 1.

DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol13No01PPT04

Bankoff, G.,  Frerks, D.,  and  Hilhorst  G (2003). Mapping of Vulnerability Development  Disasters, and People.

Alexander D (2012) Principles of Emergency Management and planning. Harpenden: Terra Publishing.

Wisner, B .,  Blaikie,  P., Cannon T &  Davis I (2004). At Risk – Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters. Routledge  Wiltshire:

Lee. D  (2014). Natural Disasters.  Infobase Publishing. p.7.

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