Discussion Question

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What information did you learn from the original writings that were not covered in the textbook?

According to Freud on the origin of the development of psychoanalysis, it is clear that life of people is highly influenced by symptoms that are a form of remnants and memory symbols of encountered traumatic experiences such as pain experienced when giving a woman is giving birth. Remembering highly depends on symbolic features printed on human brains. Psychological theory reveals that psychological conflicts are more frequent as an attempt of personal ego to defend personal motives that are synthesized as a result of experiences. In psychology theory, psychoanalytic treatment, interpretation of dreams, and evaluation of acts performed without intention can be applied in the provision of various actions to facilitate development treatment of neurotic disturbances (Freud, 1910). Sexual life and sexual development of a child covered min infant sex theory determine the significance of building child character and content of neurosis.

According to Skinner, the behavior of an organism is a product of three types of variation and selection which includes: natural selection, operant conditioning, and evolution of the process. Natural selection explains the evolution of species and species behavior. Operant conditioning explains variations of behaviors of certain individuals and how certain conditions within environment influence them. Individuals develop as a result of experiencing certain conditions of the environment (Skinner, 2004). Evolution of process explains how individuals take advantages of behavior developed by other organisms. Other sciences that explain human behavior include body cum brain that involves the evolution of organs, tissues, cells, electrical and chemical changes. According to Skinner in the book “can science be the psychology of mind?” it is explained that body cum brain obeys laws of physics, and chemistry (Skinner, 2004). The brain has no potential of making choices. The brain has structural features that allow freedom of choice and creativity. Human brain undergoes variations as a result of having an encounter with different contingencies in the environment.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using source material versus the summaries provided in textbooks

Using original sources allow getting original ideas, events, and emphasized empirical research. Original sources contain creative works, first-hand information containing contemporary accounts of events and publication of results of detailed observations outcomes and results. However, original sources of information are huge and therefore are not portable. Understanding concepts require repeated reading and taking notes making research more time to consume, tiresome and much involving.

For each theory, identify one key element found in the original material, but not in the textbook

From psychological theory, it addresses concepts involving emotion of sex love among children. Textbook requires incorporating signs contributing to infant sexuality as well as factors that contribute to children falling in love at an early age (Freud, 1910). From the science of mind theory concepts like brain science and behavior analysis in our daily lives should be included. Analyzing of the development of human communication and language perception should be covered in the textbook (Skinner, 2004).

Write a new paragraph or two on this key element that you would like to see added to the textbook

Human life is largely affected by sexual responses in life. Textbooks should reveal clearly concepts about sex life in human children to ensure that teenagers have an understanding of their body responses to reactions and attractions to sex.  The book should emphasize on human anatomy from early childhood development reflecting on various environmental influences that contribute to children engaging in sex. Adaptive measures should be applied to help teens in ensuring that they can evade from dangers and social risks associated with engagement into early children relationships. The textbook should provide psychological measures that lead to minds developing sexual thoughts among young generation.


Freud, S. (1910). The origin and development of psychoanalysis (H.W. Chase, Trans.). (Reprinted from American Journal of Psychology, 21 , , 181-218.) Retrieved from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Freud/Origin/origin1.htm

Skinner, B.F. (2004). Psychology in the year 2000. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 81(2), 207-213. (Previously unpublished manuscript of commencement address, Wayne State University Department of Psychology, 1968.) Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1284979/pdf/15239492.pdf

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