Attention/Concentration Impairment

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Discussion Question

  1. Identify possible brain structures that may be associated with attention/concentration impairment in functioning

The parts of brain associated attention and concentration include cerebral cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum (Robert, & Lehr, 2014).

  1. Identify at least two neurological tests (or specific subscales, if applicable) that could be used to test for impairment in functioning

Cognistat is referred to as the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination it is screening test that examines language, brain memory, arithmetic operations, ability to retain prolonged attention, judgment, and reasoning. It is applied in screening patients who cannot tolerate more complicated or lengthier neuropsychological tests (Nathan, et al., 2010).

Continuous Performance Test refers to attention tests that require intense attention to a visual-motor task. It is applied in assessing sustained attention and freedom from distractibility examples of tools used include; Vigil; and Connors Continuous Performance Test (Nathan, et al., 2010).

  1. Explain how each neurological test (or subscale) is administered

Cognistat involves two steps where the respondent is required to make right responses by clicking the mouse when digit 4 appears. The second step involves finding none zero number

Conners Continuous Performance Test (Conners CPT 3) it is a computerized assessment of problems associated with the brain. Consists of 1400 cases where respondents are required to push space bar when any letter except X appears (Nathan, et al., 2010).

  1. Explain how each particular test identifies possible impairment

Cognistat shows the number of correct responses in both phases. The correct clicks and wrong clicks.

Conners CPT 3 identify improvement through measuring inattentiveness, sensitivity, sustained attention, and vigilance. Clinical outcomes are presented in T-score displayed as very high, high, moderate or minimal

Learning/ Memory Impairment

  1. Identify possible brain structures that may be associated with Learning/ Memory impairment in functioning

parietal lobes, frontal lobes (Robert, & Lehr, 2014).

 

  1. Identify at least two neurological tests (or specific subscales, if applicable) that could be used to test for impairment in functioning

Halstead Category Test involves a test that measures the concept of learning. It analyses flexibility of thinking and openness to learning. It is a good to measure of overall brain function (Nathan, et al., 2010).

Wisconsin Card Sort Test Similar apply the concept of Category Test, it is a procedure used to measures the ability to learn concepts. It is appropriate for measuring of frontal lobe functioning (Nathan, et al., 2010).

  1. Explain how each neurological test (or subscale) is administered

In Halstead Category Test 208 pictures containing geometric figures are presented. Respondents are asked to state if they are reminded about numbers 1, 2, 3 or 4. If they choose correct option, a chime sounds if they choose the wrong option, buzzer sounds.

In Wisconsin Card Sort Test it involves giving respondents some cards to match colors. He or she is told if a particular match is correct or not.

  1. Explain how each particular test identifies possible impairment

In Halstead Category Test, high numbers of chime sounds indicate that one has good learning ability. A high number of buzzer sounds indicates respondent has low learning ability in Wisconsin Card Sort Test the high number of matched cards indicate the good ability of learning. Few card shows lower ability to study

Speech / Language

  1. Identify possible brain structures that may be associated with impairment in functioning

Brain parts involved include occipital lobes and temporal lobes (Robert, & Lehr, 2014).

  1. Identify at least two neurological tests (or specific subscales, if applicable) that could be used to test for impairment in functioning

Verbal or Word Fluency Tests are tests used to determine verbal fluency tests. They are designed to determine the speed and flexibility of verbal thought processes for example Controlled Oral Word Association Test and Thurstone Verbal Fluency (Nathan, et al., 2010).

Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test it a testing procedure that evaluates the ability to learn word lists. It is the initiator of other tests of verbal learning using lists of words (Nathan, et al., 2010).

  1. Explain how each neurological test (or subscale) is administered

In Rey Auditory, Verbal Learning Test participants are given a list of 15 unrelated words which are repeated in five different trials.  Participant is required to repeat the same words and again after 30 minutes

Verbal or word fluency test involves giving participants as many words as possible in a given category within a selected time span. A category can be fruits, animals, tree or words with particular letter or sound.

  1. Explain how each particular test identifies possible impairment

In Rey Auditory, Verbal Learning Test the ability to learn a new language is determined by the ability to recall as many new words as possible.

In Verbal or word fluency test ability to say words as fast as possible with correct pronunciation determines the speed of respondent speed toward making a speech.

 

References

Nathan D. Z., Douglas I. K., & Ross D. Z., (2010). Brain Injury Medicine, 2nd Edition: Principles and Practice

Robert P., & Lehr J. (2014). Brain Function and Deficits.



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