Assignment 5

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Question 1

Secondary analysis

Secondary analysis refers to research where data collected and processed by one researcher is reanalyzed by another. It involves analyzing data that have already been gathered by someone else mostly for a different purpose (Babbie&Maxfield 2014). Secondary analysis is a method that tends to save time and money and it also avoids unnecessary duplication of the research effort.

Published statistics

Published statistics are the statistics that the government agencies published. The published statistics normally provide qualitative or quantitative information on all major areas of the citizens lives such as social development, living conditions, economic development, education, environment, and health. The published statistics normally result from collection and processing of data into the statistical information by the government institution or other public bodies. The data collected by the public agency is routinely made available to the public.

Social production of data

The social production of data mostly refers to the agency records, data that do reflect the organization process and the decision rules and also the condition measured (Babbie&Maxfield 2014). An example includes the probation records and the crime reports.

Content analysis

Content analysis is the process where the researchers examine a class of social artifacts. It is the systematic study of messages and the meaning that the messages convey. The researchers normally use content analysis in studying all forms of communication that may include pictures, text, and video recording. It is a coding operation. For instance, the newspaper editorials may be coded as conservative or liberal, and radio talk shows coded as bombastic or not. Coding in the content analysis involves logic of conceptualization and operationalization.

Manifest content

When developing the analytical dimension, the researchers should choose to code for manifest or latent content. The manifest content tends to be explicit in an object (Babbie&Maxfield 2014). The manifest content refers to the concrete terms contained in the communication. The manifest tends to describe what an author has written.

Latent content

The determination of the latent content normally requires the judgment by the researcher. The latent content is the underlying means of communication. In content analysis, latent content refers to the underlying meaning of communication.

Problem analysis

Problem analysis refers to the use of the social science research methods in assessing the scope and the nature of the problem so as one may plan and select the actions to address the problem (Babbie&Maxfield 2014). An example of problem analysis is examining the patterns of theft so as to decide the preventing and enforcement strategies to pursue. Problem analysis is the identification of the underlying problem and establishing the causes and effects that relate to the problem. Problem analysis normally focuses much on deciding what intervention to pursue.

Evaluation research

Evaluation research is a type of study using standard social research methods for the evaluation purposes. Evaluation research tends to enhance knowledge and decision making leading to practical applications. Evaluation research usually provides a means of judging actions and activities regarding the standards, values, and criteria. It also seeks to enhance effectiveness in the policy making and the public sphere. The aim of evaluation research is determining the impact of social intervention. Thus, using evaluation research, it tends to analyze the particular program of a certain social problem that the program is trying to solve.

Evidence-based policy

Evidence-based policy refers to public policy that is formed by rigorously established objective evidence (Babbie&Maxfield 2014). An essential aspect of the evidence-based policy is the use of scientifically rigorous studies to identify the practices and programs capable of improving the policy-relevant outcomes. The justice agencies are heavily relying on evidence-based policy where the actions of the agencies are linked to the evidence used for planning and evaluation. Evidence-based policy is based on the idea that policy decisions should be better informed by the evidence that is available and must include rational analysis.

Impact assessment

Impact assessment refers to the process of identifying the future consequences of the current or the proposed action it is used in ensuring that the programs, projects, and policies are economically viable, environmentally sustainable, and socially equitable. It is means of measuring the effectiveness of organizational activities and then judging the significance of the changes brought by the activities.

Process evaluation

Process evaluation refers to a type of applied research that aims at determining whether the public program is implemented as intended (Babbie&Maxfield 2014). For instance, a burglary prevention program may aim to reduce burglaries through having crime prevention officers meet with residents of the target neighborhood. Thus, a process evaluation can help to determine if the meeting with the neighborhood occurred as planned.

Question 2

Safety audit

The safety audit conducted was in the Ball State University Campus. At Ball State University Campus, everybody understands that safety is the responsibility of everyone including parents, students, and staff. While touring the school, I did realize that the campus ensured various safety measures. When in school I tend to feel safe from any outside attacks. At campus, the entrance lobby tends to be very visible from the main office. Any visitor to the campus should sign in, which ensures that the school has a record of everyone who gets into the school. There is proper identification required for everyone as every student has a school identification card. The visitors are also issued with ID cards or badges. The school and the part-time people working on the campus are normally issued with ID cards as identification. The campus tends to ensure safety for everyone in the environment, which means that any intruder who may want to get in the school will have to acquire a gate pass before getting into the school interior. The safety measures that the management of the campus takes has helped in ensuring that students feel safe when they are in school.

Any safety factor that is evident in the school is that there is good lighting. The hallways are properly lighted; bathrooms are properly lighted and always supervised by staff. The stairways are also properly lighted. With the adequate lighting, it is possible for someone to see the face of another person 15 meters in from of you.  Through the safety audit, it is clear that Ball state university campus has ensured various safety measures to make sure that students are not subjected to any danger. The multiple entries to the main building are normally controlled and supervised, and those doors that access the internal courtyard tend to be securely locked. The safety audit conducted, indicates that the campus ensures safety in different ways, and I feel comfortable and safe when I am in school.


Babbie, E &Maxfield, M (2014). Research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Cengage Learning

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