25427 Discussion Question

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RQ2: What cognitive outcomes are associated with one- to three-year-olds playing tablet and smartphone games?

Independent variables applicable in study include

Type of games played by the children:

  1. Anti-social games
  2. User-friendly games
  3. User prompting interactive games
  4. Child mimicking games.
  5. Aggressive games

Dependent variables

  1. Responses to child understanding a game
  2. Time is taken for a child to understand a game
  3. Feedback on child score or performance on particular game

Methods of Data Collection to Implement

Data collection methods shall mainly involve demographic observing children while playing the particular game using tablets. Observation method of collecting data shall be most appropriate to gather information concerning children since their psychology reactions such as cognitive behavior is hard to hide or fake. The data collected shall involve recording behavioral reactions in a neutral environment. Children shall be subject to a natural environment where they have freedom of revealing real-time reactions on the effects of various characteristics of games. Data shall be collected through video recording (Sigelman, & Rider, 2012). Data shall also be collected through structured observation to evaluate the reaction of children towards choosing a particular game. I shall take time with children to allow them to adapt to my presence during the observation period. The session shall involve having friendly interactive activities with children while using tablet devices to play games. Children shall have freedom to interact, communicate as well as consult their friends. Exercise shall be monitored using sound recognizing systems, such as Radio Frequency Identification Cameras with enabled sound and visual.

What are the advantages/disadvantages of using a cross-sectional design?

Disadvantage of Cross-sectional Design

It involves studying a particular age group whereby a particular individual is observed once at a point. It makes it difficult to check if the participants change their behavior with age. For examples, the cognitive behavior of children may vary in future due to the degree of exposure to technology. Results collected at an early stage may, therefore, differ with future results (Sigelman, & Rider, 2012).

Cross-section design may cause challenges in determining actual cause and reasons for children behavior on different instances. For example, a child may express fear after getting a challenge or destroy device as a result of disappointment. Some applications or phones may have flaws or develop a problem at data collection section making children fail to realize and communicate a challenge. Such issues may contribute to wrong conclusions and inferences (Bland, 2001).

Advantage Cross-sectional Design

It is quick and easy since researchers require concentrating on particular studies within a short period to make inferences and conclusions. A lot of information can be collected from one instance due to common characters and behaviors thus providing little time consumption with minimal expenses. Data can be applied to different types of research without requiring conducting similar research (Sigelman, & Rider, 2012).

It helps in dealing with assumptions by removing assumptions as well as approving or disapproving a particular assumption linked with the study. Study on children using technology based handheld devices can easily be supported through approving and disapproving multiple variables during data collection operations. Through the use of cross-sectional design several findings, outcomes, and conclusions can be analyzed to create new theories, studies, or in-depth research activities (Bland, 2001).

Cross-sectional design allows easy reflection of data and information towards generalizing various instances used during the study period. Researchers can easily make general conclusions depending on a particular variable (Bland, 2001).


Bland M. (2001). An Introduction to Medical Statistics. 3rd Edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2012). Life-span human development (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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